Automated Fare Collection System & Urban Public Transportation

An Economic & Management Approach To Urban Transit Systems
By Clifford N. Opurum

The introduction of automated fare collection system was a dynamic response of the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority to address the dual effects of fiscal crisis of the 1970s and the 1990s. It is an approach to stimulate and improve ridership on its subway and bus systems as a means to revitalize the transit network. 

Automation in transit fare collection is a fairly new idea in urban transit systems but urbanites are quickly adopting and embracing this special piece of new technology. Automated fare collection system is preferred over the traditional mechanical system of fare collection and will make positive impact on both transit ridership and revenue, if efficiently operated. In terms of mass transit, society will be better off financially with automated fare collection system. This book is a must read for urbanites.

With its unique features (presented in nine chapters grouped into five major parts), Automated Fare Collection System And Urban Public Transit: An Economic & Management Approach To Urban Transit Systems provides a wealth of resourceful information to everyone with interest in mass transit.

In this book, Clifford N. Opurum extensively reveals the impact of the automated fare collection system on mass transit and particularly, on the New York City rail rapid transit system.


Forty Days of Fasting & Prayer in the Biblical Context
A Kingdom Message for Believers & Unbelievers


This spiritually-empowered book reveals the importance and power of fasting and prayer backed with faith in God. It is based on the author’s spiritual experiences and observations within Christ-centered environment, and written under the influence of the Holy Ghost and with the wisdom, knowledge and understanding received from the Almighty God. Jesus said to his disciples: “Howbeit, this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting” (Matt 17:21). There is an increasing need for believers to have a closer relationship with God, given the ever increasing level of abominations and immoralities in this world. 

This book is meant to spiritually encourage believers to continue to intercede for the sick and the weak, the lost and the hopeless, and the unbelieving souls. Throughout the Scriptures, and indeed the history of humanity, true servants of God have fasted and prayed as they faced circumstances that were above and beyond human comprehension and capability, and as they were over-whelmed with trials and tribulations of this secular world. It is imperative that we find time for a quiet moment within our hearts to commune with God, and to have a dialogue with Him in our individual “war rooms.”

This book will immensely help and encourage you in positioning yourself for a place in the Kingdom of God.